Download e-book for iPad: A Typology of Sculpted Forms in Open Bedrock Channels (GSA by Keith Richardson, Paul Carling

By Keith Richardson, Paul Carling

ISBN-10: 0813723922

ISBN-13: 9780813723921

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Extra info for A Typology of Sculpted Forms in Open Bedrock Channels (GSA Special Paper 392)

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Flow from bottom right to top left. Granitic gneiss. The rock projection is ~4 m across. flute(s), in a characteristic position relative to them, this being downstream and to one side. Thus, assemblages of closely spaced and conjugate flutes are created with a characteristic diagonal alignment of individuals. These may be termed en echelon assemblages and can be seen in the illustration of Maxson (1940: Fig. 1 therein) and in Figure 39 of this report. Kor et al. (1991) and Shaw (1996) report en echelon assemblages of sichelwannen.

Figure 80. Cavetto. Nahal Ashalim, Israel, looking downstream. Limestone. Sunglasses (arrowed) for scale. Figure 81. Taffoni. Nahal Shani, Israel, looking upstream. Fine-grained sandstone. The largest hole is ~30 cm across. 50 K. A. Carling In fact, they occur on sharp bends, such that the alcoves face upstream toward the reach above the bend. Several alcoves may occur adjacent to each other. They may also exhibit a hierarchical structure, with small alcoves forming in the walls of large ones. It is possible that they originate as overdeepened points within a cavetto, where erosion is particularly intense or the rock particularly weak, these points being unstable and developing by positive feedback into a deep hollow.

The ends of four furrows within the complex are indicated by arrows. Birk Beck, UK. Flow from bottom to top. Medium-grained sandstone. Pencil for scale. Figure 76. Bifurcating furrow complex. Bifurcation points are indicated by arrows. Nam Mae Chaem (Ob Luang), Thailand. Upstream at bottom. Granitic gneiss. The notebook is 15 cm long. 5 Overhanging Concave Features This is a class of concave features that occur in a vertical or near-vertical face and that undercut the face (Fig. 78). They range from deep sculpted forms with an approximately horizontal roof to those of lower relief in which the back wall arches over but does not approach the horizontal.

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A Typology of Sculpted Forms in Open Bedrock Channels (GSA Special Paper 392) by Keith Richardson, Paul Carling

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