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By Paul A. Thomas, Charles V. Mann

ISBN-10: 1349039403

ISBN-13: 9781349039401

ISBN-10: 134903942X

ISBN-13: 9781349039425

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1970) found that adrenaline can cause contraction. Nicotine has various effects on human gastrointestinal muscle, and is thought to cause contraction by stimulating enteric ganglia supplying cholinergic nerves, and relaxation by releasing catecholamines (Bennett and Whitney, 1966a). Ellis et a/. (1960) found that circular muscle strips of lower oesophagus relaxed to nicotine, whereas the longitudinal muscle responded with contraction. However, Misiewicz eta/. (1969a) and Stockley 34 ALIMENTARY SPHINCTERS AND THEIR DISORDERS (1974) found that nicotine usually relaxed both circular and longitudinal muscle strips.

Prostaglandin E 2 alone had no effect, but it inhibited pentagastrin-induced sphincter contraction. These results are consistent with the findings that prostaglandin F compounds usually contract the circular muscle of the gastrointestinal tract, whereas prostaglandin E compounds usually cause a relaxation (Bennett and Fleshier, 1970). Dilawari eta/. (1975) also obtained an increase of sphincter pressure when the prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor indomethacin was given rectally. This is consistent with an inhibitory role of prostanoids (prostaglandins and related substances) in the lower oesophageal sphincter, and suggests that inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis may be of value in reducing gastro-oesophageal reflux.

Endocholedochal section of the sphincter of Oddi. Arch. , 33, 696 Courtney, H. (1950). Anatomy of the pelvic diaphragm and anorectal musculature as related to sphincter preservation in anorectal surgery. Am. J. , 79, 155 Fleischner, F. G. and Bernstein, C. (1950). Roentgen-anatomical studies of the normal ileocaecal valve. Radiology, 54, 43 Goligher, J. , Leacock, A. G. and Brossy, J. J. (1955). The surgical anatomy of the anal canal. Br. J. , 43, 51 Horton, B. T. (1928). Pyloric musculature, with special reference to pyloric block.

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Alimentary Sphincters and their Disorders by Paul A. Thomas, Charles V. Mann

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